Know About Iranian Architecture

Iranian architecture displays a class and elegance that cannot be matched with any other style of architecture and design. It is quite distinct from that of Muslim countries. The major features of Iranian architecture are: structural ingenuity basically in vault and dome construction; a skill of decoration with freedom and intricacy incomparable to any other form of architecture.

The pre-Islamic buildings include the remarkable Elamite ziggurat at Chogha Zanbil. Baked brick was used for outer surfaces by the 12th century BC. Most of the greatest buildings were built with a religious purpose, and even in secular buildings religious influences are entirely absent. Palaces were present, and their shapes, sizes and colors varied according to the ruling dynasty.

The first great development of ancient Persian architecture took place under the Achaemenid dynasty during the Persian Empire, from about 550 to 330 BC. There are numerous remains of Achaemenian period, including two palaces, a sacred precinct, a citadel, a tower, and the tomb of Cyrus.

Royal architecture under the Achaemenid also included tombs cut in solid rock, of which the best-known examples are those at Naqshah Rostam near Persepolis. Little is known of the popular building practices of the period, but archaeologists believe that the ordinary dwelling was made of mud brick. After the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great, Greek influence, in its late, Hellenistic phase, was predominant in the arts of Persia. Examples include fragments of bronze sculpture found at Shami, and the Parthian sculptural reliefs at Behistun.

During the Islamic period “mosques” became the major buildings in Iranian architecture. Outstanding examples of early Islamic Iranian architecture include the Mosque of Baghdad built in 764, the Great Mosque at Samarra erected in 847, and the early 10th-century mosque at Nayin.

After the 17th century, Iranian artists copied European paintings and engravings, and the native traditions declined. But Iranian architecture still managed to leave a huge impact on the world.

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How To Build Your Own Intermittent Misting System To Propagate Plants

This article will lay out the steps and materials you need to build your own misting system to propagate plants.

How to build your own misting system

Here is a list of materials and quantities needed to build a basic misting system. This system is designed to be used outdoors, but should also work fine inside a greenhouse. Your choice of misting nozzles will determine whether your PVC pipe will be suspended above the cuttings, or lay on the ground. This list assumes you are using a digital timer. WARNING: Use extreme caution if using mechanical timers instead of the digital one. The voltage can cause injury or death. If you are not qualified to perform the required wiring, seek the help of a qualified electrician. If using a digital controller, most convert the incoming voltage to a lower voltage, so there is less of a danger, but seek advice from an electrician if needed.
Misting controller(s) (1) (2, if building the mechanically operated system)
110 volt AC to 24 volt AC transformer (1) (will not be needed if using the digital timer)
24 volt AC solenoid (1)
Wire for solenoid (length determined by system builder)
Wire for timers (only if using the mechanical timers)
3/4 PVC pipe (10′ length)
3/4 socket x 3/4 male IPS adapter (1)
3/4 male IPS x female hose adapter (1)
3/4 PVC glue on cap (1)
misting nozzles (4)
Waterproof wire-nuts (2)
9 volt batteries (for digital timers only)
PVC primer and cement
Teflon tape
Misc. electrical fittings (only if building the mechanical system)Step 1
Install the two 3/4 male adapters into the solenoid. Be sure to wrap Teflon tape around all pipe threads to reduce the likelihood of leaks. The 3/4 x female hose adapter should be installed on the inlet side, the 3/4 male IPS x 3/4 socket on the outlet side. Most solenoids have a direction of flow arrow to help you determine which end is the inlet, and which is the outlet. Be sure to not over tighten the fittings, or the solenoid may crack.
Step 2
If building the digital timer system, wire the controller to the solenoid, using the wiring directions that came with the controller. Be absolutely sure the transformer and solenoid are the same voltage. Use the waterproof wire nuts to connect the solenoid to the wire. If building the mechanical system, the timers need to be wired together, then to a transformer. The transformer then gets wired to the solenoid using the wire nuts. Seek the help of a qualified electrician to be sure your mechanically operated system is wired correctly.
Step 3
Prime and cement the 3/4 PVC cap on the end of the PVC pipe. Prime and cement the other end of the pipe into the fitting in the solenoid. Do not get any cement in the solenoid.
Step 4